The elimination of viral infections involves humoral and cellular factors of non-specific protection.
The first barrier to the virus entering the body is the skin and mucous membranes. Mucins and secretory IgA present on the mucous membranes interact with viruses and inhibit their adhesion to epithelial cells.
In the case of a significant viral load, viruses penetrate the cells and interferons become the main protection factor, which begin to be produced by the cell immediately when the virus adheres to the surface of the cell membrane. Interferons do not have a direct antiviral effect and exhibit a biological effect mainly locally (autocrine and paracrine) or are transmitted with blood or lymph, affect many types of cells with different functions (endocrine). This explains the multiple biological effects caused by interferons. The main biological effect of interferons is the inhibition of the reproduction of viruses, as well as tumor cells.
Over the millions of years of co-evolution of man and the microorganisms that inhabit him, a multilevel defense against viral infections has formed, regulated by the products of bacterial microflora. One of the manifestations of this protection is the presence of NOD2 receptors inside the cells, the activation of which increases the synthesis of immunoglobulins, interferons and other cytokines that attract neutrophils and natural killers to kill infected cells. The NOD2 receptor is activated by muramyl peptides that form the bacterial cell wall. In Russia, there is a medicine based on muramyl peptide - Licopid.
Licopid has been used for more than 25 years to activate anti-infection protection in children and adults, it is a safe and effective inducer of interferons, immunoglobulins and cytokines. Licopid is effective and widely used for the prevention of seasonal diseases in adults, prevents recurrence of herpetic infection in children and adults, including Epstein-Barr virus.
The main advantages of the medicine Licopid are effectiveness, safety and the presence of a specific receptor.